In 1899, The Arctic Brotherhood was organized in Skagway with the motto, "No Boundary Here."
In 1917, The Mount McKinley National Park (now Denali National Park) was established.
In 1925, The Glacier Bay National Monument was established.
In 1975, Avalanches closed the Seward Highway near Jerome Lake.
In 1979, The last eclipse of the century occurred slightly before sunup in Alaska.
In 1981, Pope John Paul II stopped in Anchorage.
In the nation
In 1919, Congress established Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona.
In 1929, President Coolidge signed a measure establishing Grand Teton National Park.
In 1940, the U.S. Air Defense Command was created.
In 1951, the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office, was ratified.
In 1962, after becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, John Glenn told a joint meeting of Congress, "Exploration and the pursuit of knowledge have always paid dividends in the long run."
In 1987, the Tower Commission, which probed the Iran-Contra affair, issued its report, which rebuked President Reagan for failing to control his national security staff.
In 1993, a bomb built by a group of Islamic extremists exploded in the parking garage of New York's World Trade Center, killing six people and injuring more than 1,000 others.
In 1998, A jury in Amarillo, Texas, rejected an $11 million lawsuit brought by Texas cattlemen who blamed Oprah Winfrey's talk show for a price fall after a segment on food safety that included a discussion about mad-cow disease.
In 2002, Former Enron chief executive Jeffrey Skilling, at times combative, insisted during a Senate hearing that he knew nothing about manipulation of company books and denied misleading Congress as alleged by some lawmakers and Enron officials. Pharmacist Robert R. Courtney pleaded guilty in Kansas City, Mo., to watering down chemotherapy drugs. (Courtney was later sentenced to 30 years in prison.)
In the world
In 1802, French literary giant Victor Hugo was born in Besancon.
In 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from the Island of Elba to begin his second conquest of France.
In 1848, the Second French Republic was proclaimed.
In 1952, Prime Minister Winston Churchill announced that Britain had developed its own atomic bomb.
In 2002, Gunmen killed 11 minority Shiite Muslims praying in a mosque in Pakistan.
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