In 1901, the Northern Commercial Co. succeeded the Alaska Commercial Co. in many areas.
In 1939, Fred Kubon was elected mayor of Nome. A total of 137 votes were cast.
In 1940, the sawmill of the Columbia Lumber Company at Sitka was destroyed by fire.
In the nation
In 1830, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized by Joseph Smith in Fayette, N.Y.
In 1862, the Civil War Battle of Shiloh began in Tennessee.
In 1909, explorers Robert E. Peary and Matthew A. Henson became the first men to reach the North Pole. (The claim, disputed by skeptics, was upheld in 1989 by the Navigation Foundation.)
In 1917, Congress approved a declaration of war against Germany.
In 1963, the United States signed an agreement to sell Polaris A-3 missiles to Britain.
In 1965, the United States launched the Early Bird communications satellite.
In 1983, saying rock-and-roll bands attracted "the wrong element," Interior Secretary James Watt declined to invite the Beach Boys to perform at a Washington Fourth of July celebration - a stand he later reversed.
In 1992, science-fiction author Isaac Asimov died in New York at age 72.
In 1998, the Dow Jones industrial average closed above 9,000 points for the first time. Energy Secretary Federico Pena announced his resignation. Country singer Tammy Wynette died at her Nashville, Tenn., home at age 55.
In 2002, President Bush repeated his call for Israel to "withdraw without delay" from West Bank towns it had occupied since launching an offensive after a string of suicide attacks. Bush also demanded the Palestinians call "an immediate and effective cease-fire."
In the world
In 1896, the first modern Olympic games formally opened in Athens, Greece.
In 1993, a year after ethnic warfare erupted in Bosnia, the president of the Muslim-led government, Alija Izetbegovic, tried to rally his people with a televised address that likened the nationalism that had torn his country apart to Nazism.