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In 1901, the city of Nome was incorporated as a first class municipality.
In 1918, Thomas Riggs Jr. took office as governor of the territory of Alaska.
In 1960, two 9-year-old boys safely escaped from a drifting ice floe in Cook Inlet after a hair-raising ride on an outgoing tide.
In 1976, Nome edged out Bethel to win the ninth Annual Native Youth Olympics in Anchorage.
In the nation
In 1861, the American Civil War began as Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
In 1862, Union volunteers led by James J. Andrews stole a Confederate train near Marietta, Ga., but were later caught. (This episode inspired the Buster Keaton comedy, "The General.")
In 1955, the Salk vaccine against polio was declared safe and effective.
In 1981, the space shuttle Columbia blasted off from Cape Canaveral on its first test flight.
In 1983, Chicagoans went to the polls to elect Harold Washington the city's first black mayor.
In 1985, Sen. Jake Garn of Utah became the first senator to fly in space as the shuttle Discovery lifted off.
In 1996, President Clinton named U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor to succeed the late Ron Brown as commerce secretary.
In 2001, the 24 crew members of a U.S. spy plane arrived in Hawaii after being held for 11 days in China. Cincinnati Mayor Charles Luken declared a state of emergency amid the worst outbreak of racial violence in the city since the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968.
In 2005, President Bush visited soldiers at Fort Hood, Texas, marking the two-year anniversary of the end of Saddam Hussein's regime.
In the world
In 1606, England's King James I decreed the design of the original Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack), which combined the flags of England and Scotland.
In 1934, "Tender Is the Night," by F. Scott Fitzgerald, was first published.
In 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to fly in space, orbiting Earth once before making a safe landing.
In 2001, the Philippine military rescued U.S. hostage Jeffrey Schilling from Muslim rebels who had threatened to behead him.
In 2005, three men with suspected al-Qaida ties, already in British custody, were charged with a years-long plot to attack the New York Stock Exchange and other East Coast financial institutions.