In 1935, 135 Michigan and Wisconsin families, comprising 638 men, women and children, arrived in Seward. They were the second and last big group of colonists Uncle Sam was placing in the Matanuska Valley.
In 1979, after four years of research, Juneau whale biologist Chuck Juraz proved that humpbackwhales migrate between Alaska and Hawaii, using Alaska for feeding grounds and Hawaii for calving.
In the nation:
In 1761, the first life insurance policy in the United States was issued, in Philadelphia.
In 1868, the Great Train Robbery took place near Marshfield, Ind., as seven members of the Reno gang made off with $96,000 in loot.
In 1969, the lunar module of Apollo 10 flew to within nine miles of the moon's surface in a dress rehearsal for the first lunar landing.
In 1972, President Nixon began a visit to the Soviet Union, during which he and Kremlin leaders signed the SALT I arms limitation treaty.
In 1992, after a reign lasting nearly 30 years, Johnny Carson hosted NBC's Tonight Show for the last time.
In 2002, a mostly white jury in Birmingham, Alabama, convicted former Ku Klux Klansman Bobby Frank Cherry of murder in a 1963 church bombing that killed four black girls. The remains of Chandra Levy, the federal intern who had disappeared more than a year earlier, were found in a Washington park.
In the world:
In 1813, composer Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig, Germany.
In 1939, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini signed a Pact of Steel committing Germany and Italy to a military alliance.
In 1947, the Truman Doctrine was enacted as Congress appropriated military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
In 1972, the island nation of Ceylon became the republic of Sri Lanka.
In 1990, after years of conflict, pro-Western North Yemen and pro-Soviet South Yemen merged to form a single nation, the Republic of Yemen.
In 1993, the United States, Russia, France, Britain and Spain agreed to enforce safe areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina, but stopped short of endorsing President Clinton's proposal to use military force.
In 1998, voters in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland turned out in force to cast ballots giving resounding approval to a Northern Ireland peace accord.
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