In 1877, General Orders were issued by the Army, withdrawing all troops from Alaska.
In 1903, Ralph J. Rivers, who became an Alaska legislator, attorney general, and the first member of Congress, was born in Seattle.
In the nation:
In 1788, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the United States Constitution.
In 1934, bank robbers Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow were shot to death in a police ambush in Bienville Parish, La.
In 1937, industrialist John D. Rockefeller died in Ormond Beach, Fla.
In 1977, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the appeals of former Nixon White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman and former Attorney General John N. Mitchell in connection with their Watergate convictions.
In 1993, a jury in Baton Rouge, La., acquitted Rodney Peairs of manslaughter in the shooting death of Yoshi Hattori, a Japanese exchange student he'd mistaken for an intruder.
In the world:
In 1430, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
In 1533, the marriage of England's King Henry the VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
In 1701, Captain William Kidd was hanged in London after he was convicted of piracy and murder.
In 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I.
In 1945, Nazi official Heinrich Himmler committed suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany.
In 1960, Israel announced it had captured former Nazi official Adolf Eichmann in Argentina. Eichmann was tried in Israel, found guilty of crimes against humanity, and hanged in 1962.
In 1998, official returns showed two convincing "yes" votes for the Northern Ireland peace accord: a surprisingly strong 71.1 percent in British-linked Northern Ireland, and 94.4 percent in the Republic of Ireland.
In 2002, during visits to Germany and Russia on the same day, President Bush told wary European leaders "we've got to use all means at our disposal to deal with Saddam Hussein," and he denounced anyone who would appease terrorists or ignore threats to Europe.