In 1778, Captain James Cook discovered Turnagain Arm while looking for the Northwest Passage.
In 1899, the Harriman Scientific Expedition left Seattle for Alaska.
In 1979, U.S. Representative Don Young, speaking in Fairbanks, suggested a way of showing the state's displeasure in the House-passed "d-2" bill. "How long could the IRS and other Federal buildings last at 60 degrees below zero if no water, lights, or power were supplied by the municipality?"
In the nation
In 1854, the territories of Nebraska and Kansas were established.
In 1883, 12 people were trampled to death when a rumor that the recently opened Brooklyn Bridge was in imminent danger of collapsing triggered a stampede.
In 1911, Indianapolis saw its first long-distance auto race; Ray Harroun was the winner.
In 1922, the Lincoln Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C., by Chief Justice William Howard Taft.
In 1958, unidentified soldiers killed in World War II and the Korean conflict were buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
In 1971, the American space probe Mariner Nine blasted off from Cape Kennedy, Fla., on a journey to Mars.
In 2000, President Clinton arrived in Portugal as he opened a weeklong visit to Europe.
In the world
In 1431, Joan of Arc, condemned as a heretic, was burned at the stake in Rouen, France.
In 1539, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto landed in Florida.
In 1943, American forces secured the Aleutian island of Attu from the Japanese during World War II.
In 1982, Spain became NATO's 16th member.
In 1995, in a letter to U.N. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic demanded guarantees of no further NATO air attacks and de facto recognition of a self-styled Serb state.
In 2004, Saudi commandos drove al-Qaida militants from a housing complex in the kingdom's oil hub, ending a shooting and hostage-taking spree that had left 22 dead, most of them foreigners. Gunmen in Pakistan killed senior pro-Taliban Sunni cleric Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai, sparking riots. Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide left Jamaica for South Africa, saying it would be his "temporary home" until he could return to Haiti.