In Alaska, in the Nation and the World
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In 1900, a fracas erupted on the Nome waterfront after the captain of the Skookum delivered several hundred head of cattle by dumping the animals into the water, forcing them to swim to shore.
In 1903, the final connection was made in the Trans-Alaska Telegraph System at the Salcha River.
In 1915, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Alaska was 100 degrees in Fort Yukon.
In 1929, Albert Voight of Los Angeles arrived in Juneau to complete preparations for a 9,000-mile voyage to New York in a combination walrus hide and rubber rowboat, using sails and paddles for power.
In 1939, the first shipment of Matanuska Maid products, consisting of cheeses and meats, arrived in Fairbanks.
In 1940, Fort Richardson and Elmendorf Air Field were activated near Anchorage.
In 1959, Japan Airlines opened its new direct trans-Pacific service with a refueling stop in Anchorage.
In the nation
In 1844, Mormon leader Joseph Smith and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by a mob in Carthage, Ill.
In 1846, New York and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.
In 1893, the New York stock market crashed.
In 1957, more than 500 people were killed when Hurricane Audrey slammed through coastal Louisiana and Texas.
In 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York's Greenwich Village; patrons fought back in clashes considered the birth of the gay rights movement.
In 1977, the Supreme Court, in Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, struck down state laws and bar association rules that prohibited lawyers from advertising their fees for routine services.
In 1991, Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, the first black to sit on the nation's highest court, announced his retirement.
In 1997, the Supreme Court threw out a key part of the Brady gun-control law, saying the federal government could not make local police decide whether people were fit to buy handguns. However, the court left intact the five-day waiting period for gun purchases.
In 2002, in a landmark church-state decision, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that tuition vouchers were constitutional.
In 2006, a constitutional amendment to ban desecration of the American flag died in a Senate cliffhanger, falling one vote short of the 67 needed to send it to states for ratification. Surgeon General Richard Carmona issued a report saying breathing any amount of someone else's tobacco smoke harms nonsmokers. "Railroad Killer" Angel Maturino Resendiz, linked to 15 murders, was executed in Texas for the slaying of physician Claudia Benton in 1998.
In the world
In 1944, during World War II, American forces completed their capture of the French port of Cherbourg from the Germans.
In 1950, the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution calling on member nations to help South Korea repel an invasion from the North.
In 1977, the Republic of Djibouti became independent of France.
In 1986, the International Court of Justice at The Hague ruled that the United States had broken international law and violated the sovereignty of Nicaragua by aiding the contras.
In 2002, the Group of Eight nations concluded a two-day summit in Alberta, Canada, by announcing aid packages for Russia and Africa.
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