In 1885, Barton Atkins was appointed U.S. Marshall for Alaska, the second man to hold the office.
In 1922, Jay Hammond, Alaska's governor from 1974 to 1982, was born.
In 1959, the name of Knife Peak in the Katmai National Monument was changed to Mount Griggs in honor of the leader of six National Geographic Society expeditions to the area beginning in 1915.
In 1969, Governor Keith Miller declared "Lunar Landing Day in Alaska" and gave stateworkers the day off in celebration of Apollo 11's successful landing on the moon.
In the nation
In 1861, the first Battle of Bull Run was fought at Manassas, Va., resulting in a Confederate victory.
In 1899, author Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Ill. Poet Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio.
In 1925, the so-called Monkey Trial ended in Dayton, Tenn., with John T. Scopes convicted of violating state law for teaching Darwin's Theory of Evolution. The conviction was later overturned.
In 1949, the U.S. Senate ratified the North Atlantic Treaty.
In 1961, Captain Virgil "Gus" Grissom became the second American to rocket into a suborbital pattern around the Earth, flying aboard the Liberty Bell 7.
In 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the lunar module.
In 1980, draft registration began in the United States for 19- and 20-year-old men.
In 2000, Special Counsel John C. Danforth concluded "with 100 percent certainty" that the federal government was innocent of wrongdoing in the siege that killed 80 members of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, in 1993.
In 2004, President Bush sketched out a second-term domestic agenda, telling campaign donors he would shift focus to improving high school education and expanding access to health care. Academy Award-winning composer Jerry Goldsmith died in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 75. Richard Bloch, co-founder of H&R Block, the world's largest tax preparer, died in Kansas City, Miss., at age 78.
In the world
In 1831, Belgium became independent as Leopold I was proclaimed King of the Belgians.
In 1944, American forces landed on Guam during World War II.
In 1954, the Geneva Accords divided Vietnam into northern and southern entities.
In 1955, during the Geneva summit, President Eisenhower presented his "open skies" proposal under which the U.S. and the Soviet Union would trade information on each other's military facilities.
In 1995, at a 16-nation conference in London, the United States and NATO allies warned Bosnian Serbs that further attacks on U.N. safe havens would draw a "substantial and decisive response."
In 2000, Group of 8 leaders met for an economic summit on the Japanese island of Okinawa, where President Clinton also sought to soothe long-simmering tensions over the huge American military presence.