In 1949, the Canadian Department of National Revenue established a cash deposit requirement of $342 for any Alaska Highway traveler using a car built before 1940. This was to eliminate abandonment of old cars along the highway.
In 1977, at 11:02 p.m., the first oil from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields reached Valdez, after traveling the 798 miles of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline.
In the nation
In 1868, the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, was declared in effect.
In 1896, the city of Miami, Fla., was incorporated.
In 1932, Federal troops forcibly dispersed the so-called Bonus Army of World War I veterans who had gathered in Washington to demand money they weren't scheduled to receive until 1945.
In 1945, a U.S. Army bomber crashed into the 79th floor of New York's Empire State Building, killing 14 people. The U.S. Senate ratified the United Nations Charter by a vote of 89-2.
In 1965, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
In 1977, Roy Wilkins turned over leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to Benjamin L. Hooks.
In 1995, a jury in Union, S.C., rejected the death penalty for Susan Smith, sentencing her instead to life in prison for drowning her two young sons. (Smith will be eligible for parole in 2024).
In 2002, nine coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset, Pa., were rescued after 77 hours underground.
In 2004, the Democratic National Convention in Boston formally nominated John Kerry for president. Francis Crick, a Nobel Prize-winning scientist who co-discovered the "double-helix" structure of DNA, died in San Diego at age 88.
In the world
In 1540, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed, the same day Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
In 1655, French dramatist and novelist Cyrano de Bergerac, the inspiration for a play by Edmond Rostand, died in Paris.
In 1821, Peru declared its independence from Spain.
In 2000, Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was sworn in for an unprecedented third term of office, infuriating demonstrators who set government buildings ablaze.
In 2004, a car bomb exploded outside a police station used as a recruiting center in Baqouba, Iraq, killing 70 Iraqis.