In 1799, Czar Paul the First of Russia granted the first charter to the Russian American Company.
In 1900, the Nome Daily Chronicle was established, but it operated as a daily for only six weeks.
In 1959, Stan Upton finished a 5,000-mile, 19-month horseback trip from Death Valley, Calif., to McKinley National Park.
In 1979, Anchorage police raided a Mountain View home, seizing 200 marijuana plants.
In the nation
In 1860, the nation's first successful silver mill began operation near Virginia City, Nev.
In 1909, the SOS distress signal was first used by an American ship, the Arapahoe, off Cape Hatteras, N.C.
In 1934, the first federal prisoners arrived at the island prison Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay.
In 1965, rioting and looting that claimed 34 lives broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles.
In 1992, the Mall of America, the biggest shopping mall in the United States, opened in Bloomington, Minn.
In 1993, President Clinton named Army Gen. John Shalikashvili to be the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, succeeding the retiring Gen. Colin Powell.
In 1997, President Clinton made the first use of the historic line-item veto approved by Congress, rejecting three items in spending and tax bills. The Supreme Court later struck down the line-item veto as unconstitutional.
In 1998, one of the boys in the Jonesboro, Ark., schoolyard massacre pleaded guilty and the other was convicted. The boys, ages 12 and 14, got the maximum penalty allowed by law - confinement to a juvenile center, perhaps until they turn 21.
In 2002, Dr. Steven J. Hatfill, a bioweapons expert under scrutiny for anthrax-laced letters, fiercely denied any involvement and said he had cooperated with the investigation. U.S. Airways filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
In the world
In 1942, during World War II, Vichy government official Pierre Laval publicly declared that "the hour of liberation for France is the hour when Germany wins the war."
In 1954, a formal peace took hold in Indochina, ending more than seven years of fighting between the French and Communist Vietminh.
In 1962, the Soviet Union launched cosmonaut Andrian Nikolayev on a 94-hour flight.
In 1978, chiefs of state and foreign dignitaries arrived in Vatican City for the funeral of Pope Paul VI.
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