In 1938, Steve Cowper, the seventh Governor of the State of Alaska, was born in Petersburg, Va.
In 1954, the Lost River Mine near Seward unloaded 183 tons of tin in Seattle, the largest shipment ever taken from a U.S. tin mine.
In the nation
In 1831, former slave Nat Turner led a violent insurrection in Virginia. He was later executed.
In 1858, the famous debates between senatorial contenders Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas began.
In 1878, the American Bar Association was founded in Saratoga, N.Y.
In 1940, exiled Communist revolutionary Leon Trotsky died in Mexico City from wounds inflicted by an assassin.
In 1945, President Truman ended the Lend-Lease program that had shipped some $50 billion in aid to America's allies during World War II.
In 1959, President Eisenhower signed an executive order proclaiming Hawaii the 50th state of the union.
In 1983, the musical play "La Cage Aux Folles" opened on Broadway.
In 1993, in a serious setback for NASA, engineers lost contact with the Mars Observer spacecraft as it was about to reach the Red Planet on a $980 million mission.
In 1998, Samuel Bowers, a 73-year-old former Ku Klux Klan leader, was convicted in Hattiesburg, Miss., of ordering a 1966 firebombing that killed civil rights activist Vernon Dahmer.
In the world
In 1963, martial law was declared in South Vietnam as police and army troops began a crackdown on Buddhist anti-government protesters.
In 1982, a group of Palestinian guerrillas left Lebanon by ship under an evacuation plan mediated by the United States.
In 1983, 20 years ago, Philippine opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino Jr., ending a self-imposed exile in the United States, was shot dead moments after stepping off a plane at Manila International Airport.
In 1991, the hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Boris N. Yeltsin.
In 2002, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien announced he would not seek a fourth straight term and would step down in 2004.