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In 1969, Dr. Richard Warner, a Canadian professor of Environmental Biology, warned that an oil spill in the Arctic could produce disastrous pollution which could persist for decades, perhaps centuries.
In the nation
In 1642, Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass., held its first commencement.
In 1780, British spy John Andre was captured along with papers revealing Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the British.
In 1806, the Lewis and Clark expedition returned to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest.
In 1952, Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon went on television to deliver what came to be known as the "Checkers" speech, as he refuted allegations of improper campaign financing.
In 1957, nine black students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas were forced to withdraw because of a white mob outside.
In 1998, Sammy Sosa hit his 64th and 65th home runs, tying Mark McGwire for the single-season record.
In the world
In 1846, the planet Neptune was discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle.
In 1939, Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, died in London.
In 1993, Sydney, Australia, was selected to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, beating out Beijing. The Israeli parliament ratified the Israel PLO accord. The South African parliament voted to allow blacks a role in governing.
In 1998, the U.N. Security Council demanded a cease-fire in Kosovo, and threatened further action if fighting continued.
In 2002, a defiant Yasser Arafat dug in at his besieged West Bank compound, rejecting Israel's demand to hand over the names of all those holed up inside.