In 1903, telegraph service via submarine cable began between Juneau and Sitka.
In 1969, Interior Secretary Walter Hickel approved the right-of-way request for the $900 million Trans-Alaska Pipeline.
In the nation
In 1835, the first battle of the Texas Revolution took place as American settlers defeated a Mexican cavalry near the Guadalupe River.
In 1890, comedian Groucho Marx was born in New York.
In 1919, President Wilson suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed.
In 1950, the comic strip "Peanuts," created by Charles M. Schulz, was first published in nine newspapers.
In 1967, Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was the first black appointed to the nation's highest court.
In 1985, actor Rock Hudson died at his home in Beverly Hills, Calif., at age 59, after a battle with AIDS.
In 1990, the Senate voted 90-9 to confirm the nomination of Judge David H. Souter to the Supreme Court.
In the world
In 1941, German armies began Operation "Typhoon" - an all-out drive against Moscow.
In 1944, Nazi troops crushed the two-month-old Warsaw Uprising, during which a quarter-million people were killed.
In 1958, the former French colony of Guinea in West Africa proclaimed its independence.
In 1993, hundreds of opponents of Russian President Boris Yeltsin battled police in Moscow and set up burning barricades in the biggest clash of Russia's 12-day-old political crisis.