CAIRO, Egypt - Iraqi composer Naseer Shamma is such a master of the traditional Arab stringed instrument called the oud that he has taught himself to play one-handed.
He was motivated not by showmanship but by friendship. He developed the technique to help a former student who returned from the Iran-Iraq war without his right arm.
Shamma, one of Iraq's most famous oud players, is often moved by his country's tragic recent history, from the war with Iran in the 1980s to the brutal dictatorship of Saddam Hussein and the plight of Iraqi refugees driven from home in the violence after his ouster. He donates concert proceeds to pay for medical care and schooling for refugees and lobbies Arab governments to offer aid.
The soft-spoken, 45-year-old composer says he was compelled to act after he met poor refugees last year on a visit to Syria. Destitute Iraqis now flock to his Cairo office for help, and Shamma is distraught he cannot do more.
That's why his music grows darker, he says, as Iraq's strife and the hardships of its scattered people come crashing into his unusual compositions for the ancient Arab lute, much loved by Iraqis for the nostalgia it stirs.
"You know it's more deep, my music, and more strong now, because always there is pain everywhere ... and in my heart. And of course all that is very clear in my music," he says on a recent night at the oud school he runs.
Beit al-Oud, or the House of the Oud, sits in Cairo's Islamic quarter in one of the medieval inns that served traveling merchants. The building's narrow, beautifully carved stone passageways lead to an inner courtyard where Shamma gives classes for dozens of students. It's one of five centers he has set up around the Arab world, helping the Iraqi oud to flourish outside the land where it was born.
Drawn to the oud as a child, Shamma became part of a school of Iraqi musicians that transformed it into a solo instrument, freeing it from its traditional role in the classical Arab orchestra or accompanying singers. He went on to develop a style that blends East and West, modern and traditional.
His most stunning innovation came about because of the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war, which left thousands of people missing limbs.
One was a friend and student. A sobbing Ahmed Fayaq, his right arm lost in battle, greeted Shamma after a 1986 concert. In the emotion of the moment, Shamma sought to give him hope with what seemed an impossible promise: The next time Fayaq saw him performing, he would be playing with his left hand only.
"I stayed in my house four months without giving any concerts," Shamma says. "Every day I practiced, practiced, practiced. At the end of a month, I thought, 'This is impossible.' But in the end I did it ... I kept my promise."
Since then, Shamma has taught the technique to disabled musicians. The fingers of his left hand vigorously tap at the strings along the instrument's neck, producing an exciting percussive effect that reverberates through the oud's belly, transforming it into both drum and delicate stringed instrument. Close your eyes and you can't imagine the sound is generated by just one hand.