In 1870, Fort Tongass, near Alaska's southernmost boundary, was abandoned by the Army.
In 1925, the box factory of the Ketchikan Spruce Mills was destroyed by fire.
In 1971, the Juneau Municipal Airport put a DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) Navigation Aid into operation. It would let pilots know their exact distance from the runway, improving safety in poor weather.
In the nation
In 1777, the second Battle of Saratoga began during the American Revolution. British forces under Gen. John Burgoyne surrendered 10 days later.
In 1849, author Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore, Md., at age 40.
In 1940, Artie Shaw and his Orchestra recorded Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust" for RCA Victor.
In 1960, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates.
In 1963, President Kennedy signed the documents of ratification for a nuclear test ban treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union.
In 1968, the Motion Picture Association of America adopted its film-rating system.
In 1982, the Andrew Lloyd Webber-Tim Rice musical "Cats" opened on Broadway. The show closed Sept. 10, 2000, after a record 7,485 performances.
In 1998, Matthew Shepard, a gay college student at the University of Wyoming, was beaten, robbed and left tied to a wooden fencepost outside of Laramie; he died five days later. Russell Henderson later pleaded guilty to murder; a second suspect, Aaron McKinney, was convicted of murder; both were sentenced to life in prison. The Justice Department sued Visa and MasterCard, the nation's largest credit card networks, on grounds they were restraining competition and limiting consumers' choices. A judge later ruled that the Visa and MasterCard associations had to allow their member banks to issue other credit cards.
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