In 1920, Seaborn J. Buckalew, who became an Alaska legislator and judge, was born in Texas.
In 1939, Ernest Gruening took office as the 13th territorial governor of Alaska, appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
In 1960, U.S. Secretary of the Interior Fred Seaton established three national wildlife reserves in Alaska: The Arctic National Wildlife Range (9 million acres in the extreme northeastern corner of Alaska), the Izembek National Wildlife Range (415,000 acres on the north side of the Alaska Peninsula), and the Kuskoquim National Wildlife Range (1.8 million acres on the Yukon-Kuskoquim Delta).
In 1973, the Alaska State Ferry MV Le Conte was officially launched.
In 1979, R. Buckminster Fuller, age 84, spoke at the Alaska State Legislature's Future Frontiers Conference in Anchorage.
In 1982, Bill Sheffield took office as the sixth governor of Alaska.
In the nation
In 1790, Congress moved from New York to Philadelphia.
In 1884, Army engineers completed construction of the Washington Monument.
In 1889, Jefferson Davis, the first and only president of the Confederate States of America, died in New Orleans.
In 1923, a presidential address was broadcast on radio for the first time as President Calvin Coolidge spoke to a joint session of Congress.
In 1947, Everglades National Park in Florida was dedicated by President Harry S. Truman.
In 1957, America's first attempt at putting a satellite into orbit blew up on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Fla.
In 1969, a concert by the Rolling Stones at the Altamont Speedway in Livermore, Calif., was marred by the deaths of four people, including one who was stabbed by a Hell's Angel.
In 1973, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew.
In 1994, former Associate Attorney General Webster Hubbell pleaded guilty to defrauding his former law partners and clients of nearly $400,000. Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen announced his resignation. Orange County, Calif., filed for bankruptcy protection due to investment losses of about $2 billion.
In 1999, the Supreme Court, reconsidering its landmark Miranda ruling, agreed to decide whether police were still required to warn criminal suspects that they had a "right to remain silent." The justices upheld that right the following June. SabreTech, an aircraft maintenance company, was convicted of mishandling the oxygen canisters blamed for the cargo hold fire that caused the 1996 ValuJet crash in the Everglades that killed 110 people. Eight of the nine counts were later thrown out on appeal.
In 2003, Army became the first team to finish 0-13 in major college history after a 34-6 loss to Navy.
In the world
In 1982, 11 soldiers and six civilians were killed when an Irish National Liberation Army bomb exploded in a pub in Ballykelly, Northern Ireland.
In 1989, 14 women were shot to death at the University of Montreal's school of engineering by a man who then took his own life.
In 1989, Egon Krenz resigned as leader of East Germany.
In 2003, a U.S. warplane in pursuit of a "known terrorist" attacked a village in eastern Afghanistan, mistakenly killing nine children. Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld met with senior American commanders in Iraq, and was assured that a recent switch to more aggressive anti-insurgency tactics had begun to pay off. Ireland's Rosanna Davison was crowned Miss World at the southern Chinese tropical resort of Sanya.