In 1922, the Ready Bullion Mine on Douglas Island was permanently shut down.
In 1971, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law, creating 13 regional Native corporations in Alaska.
In 1973, plans to add 31.5 million acres of Alaska land to the National Wildlife Refuge System were submitted by U.S. Secretary of the Interior Rogers Morton under provision D-2 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.
In the nation
In 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.
In 1865, the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery, was declared in effect.
In 1915, President Wilson, widowed the year before, married Edith Bolling Galt at her Washington home.
In 1944, in a pair of rulings, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the wartime relocation of Japanese-Americans, but also said undeniably loyal Americans of Japanese ancestry could not be detained.
In 1971, the Rev. Jesse Jackson announced in Chicago the founding of Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity).
In 1972, the United States began its heaviest bombing of North Vietnam at that time during the Vietnam War. (The bombardment ended 12 days later.)
In 1995, the Dow industrials dropped 101.52 points, its biggest one-day loss in four years amid investor worries over the budget stalemate between Congress and President Clinton. A powerful fertilizer bomb was found outside an Internal Revenue Service office in Reno, Nev., but it fizzled before its lit fuse could do much damage.
In 2000, the Electoral College cast its ballots, with President-elect Bush receiving the expected 271; Al Gore, however, received 266, one fewer than expected, because of a District of Columbia Democrat who left her ballot blank to protest the district's lack of representation in Congress.
In the world
In 1892, Tchaikovsky's ballet "The Nutcracker" publicly premiered in St. Petersburg, Russia.
In 1940, Adolf Hitler signed a secret directive ordering preparations for a Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. (Operation Barbarossa was launched in June 1941.)
In 1956, Japan was admitted to the United Nations.
In 1969, Britain's Parliament abolished the death penalty for murder.
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